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This is Scientific American ― 60-Second Science. I'm Christopher Intagliata.
A baby's laugh is unmistakable.
But aside from its squealing, high-pitched quality, there's another factor that sets a baby's laugh apart from ours:
babies laugh on the exhale AND the inhale.
Whereas adult humans "tend to laugh predominantly on the exhale. The classic kind of ha-ha-ha."
Disa Sauter, a psychologist who studies emotions at the University of Amsterdam.
Sauter and her colleagues collected 44 samples of babies laughing,
from the ages of 3 months...to 10 months...all the way up to 18 months.
They played the samples for about 100 untrained volunteers, and asked them to deconstruct the laughs.
Were the babies laughing on the inhale, the exhale, or both?
"And there we find a nice relationship between the age of the baby and the amount of the laughter happening on the inhale."
The younger the baby, the more laughs on the inhale.
Because remember, our laughs gravitate towards the exhale as we age.
And Sauter thinks one reason for that could be that we gain more vocal control as we learn to talk:
because speaking also happens primarily on the exhale.
She presented the preliminary findings at a meeting of the Acoustical Society of America, in Victoria, Canada.
The researchers are in the process of checking the judgments of the volunteers against those of professional phoneticians.
这里是科学美国人――60秒科学。我是克里斯托弗・因塔利亚塔。
婴儿的笑声不会被认错。
但除了声音尖细而且音调高等特点外,还有一个因素能将婴儿的笑声和我们成人的笑声区分开,
那就是:婴儿在呼气和吸气时都可以笑。
而成人“主要是在呼气时发笑。典型的笑声就是‘哈哈哈’。
”阿姆斯特丹大学研究情感的心理学家迪萨・索特说到。
索特和同事收集了44个婴儿笑声样本,
婴儿年龄从3个月到10个月一直到18个月。
他们向约100名未经训练的志愿者播放了这些婴儿笑声样本,并让志愿者分析这些笑声。
婴儿是在吸气时发笑还是在呼气时发笑,或是在吸气和呼气时都会笑?
“我们由此发现了婴儿年龄和吸气发笑次数的确切关系。”
婴儿月份越小,吸气时发笑的次数就越多。
要记住,这是因为随着年龄的增长,我们会逐渐变成呼气时发笑。
索尔认为,其中一个原因可能是,我们在学习说话时会获得更多的声音控制能力:
说话也主要是在呼气时进行的。
她在加拿大维多利亚市举行的美国声学学会会议上介绍了她的初步研究发现。
研究人员正在将志愿者的判断与专业语言学家的判决进行核对。
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